Strength Training in Females: Great Gains Confirmed

How much muscle mass and strength can an untrained female expect to gain upon entering the world of strength training? Quite a substantial amount, as it turns out. Most strength-training research is still performed using male subjects. That being said, by now there is enough data to examine to get an idea of the effects … Read more

Too Much Training Creates a Less Anabolic Environment in Your Muscles

Systemic concentrations of anabolic hormones like testosterone do not predict the muscle growth strength training produces. However, local factors inside your muscles, like androgen receptor content, do. The results from a recent study show that overtraining leads to lower muscle androgen receptor content. This suggests that you don’t want to cross the fine line between … Read more

Training Frequency in the Elderly: Two Times Per Week is Enough

Training frequency is one of the major variables, along with intensity and volume, you can manipulate to improve the results from your efforts in the gym. Properly adapting these variables to your own goals and needs will lead to more muscle mass and better strength gains. Does more equal better for older men and women … Read more

Omega-3 Fatty Acids: Effects, Benefits, and Safety

Omega-3 fatty acids have numerous functions in your body. They help regulate your blood pressure, inflammatory processes, and your nervous system, just to mention a few vital functions. In addition, they are responsible for maintaining cell structure and signaling, as well as cell membrane fluidity. You wouldn’t survive without them. For the athlete, omega-3 fatty … Read more

How Long Do You Build Muscle After Eating a Protein-Rich Meal?

Do you think we know everything about protein and how your body uses it to build muscle? Then you are sorely mistaken. We probably don’t know much at all. For example, we don’t know how long a certain amount of protein builds new muscle mass. Add all the various protein sources in a regular diet, … Read more

Caffeine: Effects, Benefits, and Safety

Which is the most popular psychoactive drug in the world? Caffeine, of course. Our favorite drug has many different physiological effects, one being potentially enhanced performance during exercise. This effect is mainly exerted by blocking the neurotransmitter adenosine from its receptors. Caffeine increases both aerobic endurance performance, muscular endurance, and even anaerobic strength and power activities … Read more

HMB: Effects, Benefits and Safety

HMB, or β-Hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate, is a metabolite of the branched-chain amino acid leucine. The effects of HMB on muscle metabolism during resistance training have been studied in human trials for more than 20 years. HMB has been shown to have a positive effect on muscle protein turnover, and might be beneficial as a supplement during periods … Read more